2022-自學課程-固態熱力學 (Thermodynamics of Solids) (9月-2023年1月)

  • 0.0
  • 73 學生
  • 報名時間 : 2022/09/12 - 2023/01/13
  • 開課時間 : 2022/09/12 - 2023/01/13
  • 課程費用 : 免費

報名課程

介紹

This is an advanced core course of thermodynamics for graduate students in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Students from other disciplines in science and engineering are also welcome to take. The course will start from review of the three laws of thermodynamics and then move to more insight of entropy and free energies. The calculation and application of Gibbs free energy in solid solutions and alloy systems will be emphasized, which will then be correlated with the construction of phase diagrams. The thermodynamic principles involved in surface/interface, nanomaterials, and electrochemistry will also be discussed. Students will be asked to watch the videos, do the exercise problems, and take the quizzes. The total length of the videos is 20 hours, which is equivalent to a 3-credit hour course instructed in the classroom. The lectures are given in English.

先修課程 :

大學部熱力學或物理化學。



章節

* 以下章節為預覽,請點報名後點選開始上課,進入課程
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • ● 1-1 Three laws of thermodynamics
    • ● 1-2 Terminologies and unit conversion
    • ● Chapter 1 Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 2: The First Law of Thermodynamics
    • ● 2-1 The first law of thermodynamics
    • ● 2-2 Expansion and compression of a gas
    • ● 2-3 Definition of the system pressure
    • ● 2-4 Heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and compressibility
    • ● 2-5 Difference between \(C_{P}\) and \(C_{V}\)
    • ● 2-6 Internal energies of ideal gases
    • ● 2-7 Enthalpy and heat capacities
    • ● 2-8 Isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression of ideal gases
    • ● 2-9 Heat capacities of elemental solids
    • ● Chapter 2 Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 3: The Second and Third Law of Thermodynamics
    • ● 3-1 The second law of thermodynamics, entropy, and Carnot cycle
    • ● 3-2 Entropy changes of reversible and irreversible ideal gas expansion
    • ● 3-3 Entropy changes of an ideal gas by a 4-step irreversible expansion
    • ● 3-4 Entropy change of water by a one-step heating
    • ● 3-5 Entropy changes of water by a 2-step or 4-step heating
    • ● 3-6 Combination of the first and second laws, Maxwell relations
    • ● 3-7 Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, total \(\triangle S\) and system \(\triangle G\)
    • ● 3-8 Getting H and S from G
    • ● 3-9 Making use of Maxwell relations
    • ● 3-10 Dependence of enthalpy on temperature and pressure
    • ● 3-11 Dependence of entropy on temperature and pressure
    • ● 3-12 Configurational entropy, the third law of thermodynamics
    • ● 3-13 Molecular interpretation of entropy
    • ● Chapter 3 Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 4: Relations among Thermodynamic Quantities
    • ● 4-1 Definition and application of the standard state
    • ● 4-2 Standard state values of elements and substances from the table
    • ● 4-3 Tables A1, A2 and A3 from Gaskell's "Thermodynamics of Materials"
    • ● 4-4 Calculation of enthalpy and entropy changes from heat capacities
    • ● 4-5 Equilibrium constant and free energy change
    • ● 4-6 Chemical potential
    • ● Chapter 4 Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 5: Thermodynamics of Phase Transformations
    • ● 5-1 Free energy curves for one-component systems
    • ● 5-2 Classification of phase transitions
    • ● 5-3 Order-disorder and superconductive-normal phase transitions
    • ● 5-4 Phase diagram of \(H_{2}O\)
    • ● 5-5 Free energy curves of \(H_{2}O\) at different pressures
    • ● 5-6 Free energy curves of \(H_{2}O\) at different temperatures
    • ● 5-7 Effect of external pressure on the transition temperature
    • ● 5-8 Clausius-Clapeyron equation for vapor pressure
    • ● 5-9 Effect of external pressure on the vapor pressure
    • ● 5-10 \(\triangle\) H and \(\triangle S\) for metastable phase transition of \(H_{2}O\)
    • ● 5-11 Metastable phase transition of Sn, Richard
    • ● 5-12 Transformation of graphite to diamond
    • ● Chapter 5 Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 6: Thermodynamics of Solid Solutions
    • ● 6-1 Ideal gas mixtures
    • ● 6-2 Fugacity of real gases
    • ● 6-3 Fugacities of some real gases
    • ● 6-4 Fugacity of condensed phases
    • ● 6-5 Definition of activity
    • ● 6-6 Activity as a measure of escaping tendency
    • ● 6-7 Behavior of ideal solutions
    • ● 6-8 Mixing entropy and configurational entropy
    • ● 6-9 Activity coefficient and Henry's law
    • ● 6-10 Sieverts' law
    • ● 6-11 Regular solutions
    • ● 6-12 Non-regular solutions
    • ● 6-13 Quasichemical model
    • ● 6-14 Ω and non-ideality
    • ● 6-15 Bonding preference and atomic configuration
    • ● 6-16 Electromotive force and Gibbs free energy
    • ● 6-17 Gas electrodes and gas fugacity
    • ● Chapter 6: Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 7: Free Energy of Binary Systems
    • ● 7-1 How to get chemical potential and activity from the free energy curve
    • ● 7-2 Free energy curves vs Ω
    • ● 7-3 Activity vs Ω
    • ● 7-4 Activity vs composition
    • ● 7-5 Miscibility gap vs Ω
    • ● 7-6 Isomorphous system vs Ω
    • ● 7-7 Activity vs standard state
    • ● 7-8 Negative mixing enthalpies and phase diagrams
    • ● 7-9 Positive mixing enthalpies and phase diagrams
    • ● 7-10 Free energy curves of eutectic systems
    • ● 7-11 Effect of supercooling on the shift of eutectic phase diagram
    • ● 7-12 Shift of eutectic phase diagram by Gibbs-Thomson equation
    • ● 7-13 Free energy curve and chemical spinodal
    • ● 7-14 Spinodal decomposition vs nucleation and growth
    • ● 7-15 Gradient energy and coherent strain energy
    • ● 7-16 Schematic phase diagram for miscibility gaps and spinodals
    • ● Chapter 7: Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 8: Phase Diagrams
    • ● 8-1 Gibbs phase rule
    • ● 8-2 One-component phase diagrams
    • ● 8-3 Isomorphous system
    • ● 8-4 Hume-Rothery rules
    • ● 8-5 Eutectic system
    • ● 8-6 Features of eutectic systems
    • ● 8-7 Peritectic, eutectoid, and monotectic transformations
    • ● 8-8 Intermetallic compounds and intermediate phases
    • ● 8-9 Order-disorder phase transformation, $$Fe-Fe_3C ~phase~ diagram$$
    • ● 8-10 Three-component phase diagrams
    • ● 8-11 Ternary isotherms
    • ● 8-12 Fe-Cr-Ni system
    • ● 8-13 $$Y_2O_3-BaO-CuO ~system$$
    • ● Chapter 8: Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 9: Thermodynamics of Surfaces
    • ● 9-1 Interfacial free energy
    • ● 9-2 Composition variation across the interface
    • ● 9-3 Surface concentration
    • ● 9-4 Surface free energy vs surface energy
    • ● 9-5 Gibbs adsorption equation, values of surface energy
    • ● 9-6 Chemical potential of curved interfaces
    • ● 9-7 Surface energy vs surface tension
    • ● 9-8 Anisotropy of surface energy, Wulff plot
    • ● Chapter 9: Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 10: Thermodynamics of Nanomaterials
    • ● 10-1 Thermodynamics of Nanomaterials
    • ● 10-2 Melting point and cohesive energy of surface atoms
    • ● 10-3 Melting point and Gibbs-Thomson equation
    • ● 10-4 Nanosize effect on modification of phase diagrams
    • ● 10-5 Solid state amorphization of layered structure
    • ● 10-6 Mechanical alloying
    • ● 10-7 Atomic layer deposition
    • ● 10-8 Enhanced solubility by nanolamination
    • ● Chapter 10: Exercise Problems

常見問題

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指定用書 :

1. Ira N. Levine, Physical Chemistry, 6 ed., McGraw-Hill, 2009.

2. Robert DeHoff, "Thermodynamics in Materials Science," 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, 2006.

參考資料:

1. “Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials,” 6th ed., 2018, David  R. Gaskell and David E. Laughlin, Taylor & Francis.

2. "Thermodynamics of Solids," 2nd ed., 1972, Richard A. Swalin, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


講師

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彭宗平 (Tsong-Pyng Perng)

國立清華大學材料科學工程學系講座教授 | 查看講師

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2022-自學課程-固態熱力學 (Thermodynamics of Solids) (9月-2023年1月)

本課程原係材料科學工程系研究生之必修課,以MOOCs形式製作為線上課程。以英語講授,共20小時,其份量相當於一學期三學分的實體課程。課程分兩部分:第一部分為熱力學三大定律及原理之複習;第二部分則先將熱力學函數應用於材料的相轉變及固溶體,再延伸到自由能曲線及其與相圖之相關性,最後則探討物質的表面能及奈米材料之熱力學性質。